StemPrintER was developed to be a novel genomic predictor based on 20 stem cell genes. These 20 genes have high expression levels that identify a similar group of patients with negative results from four distinct public breast cancer datasets.
Based on existing published research, several of the 20 genes display a connection to metastatic dissemination through their role in matrix degradation, migration, invasion and engraftment.
It is considered that other genes are significant in the establishment of cancer stem cell phenotypes and might be linked to involvement in genomic instability.
A final set of genes, whose role in metastasis is less obvious, might be linked to the development of responses required for cancer stem cells to withstand and survive in hostile environmental conditions, such as hypoxia and nutrient deprivation, both at the primary tumour and metastatic site level. Additional evidence for the link between the 20 genes and the cancer stem cell phenotype comes from the observation that these genes are frequently overexpressed in breast cancer.
The current market leader in this field is the Oncotype DX assay, a 21-gene assay that predicts the likelihood of chemotherapy benefit and 10-year risk of distant recurrence to inform adjuvant treatment. Oncotype DX is owned by Exact Sciences Corp, a leading provider of cancer screening and diagnostic tests.
A team of scientists from the European Institute of Oncology in Milan conducted a head-to-head comparison of StemPrintER with Oncotype DX in collaboration with the Royal Marsden Hospital and Queen Mary University in London with favorable results showing superior performance of StemPrintER over Oncotype DX.
EndoPredict is a CE-marked assay that is designed to predict the likelihood of metastases developing within 10 years of an initial breast cancer diagnosis. The test is for pre- and post-menopausal people with early breast cancer with oestrogen receptor (ER)‑positive, human epidermal growth factor 2 (HER2)-negative and lymph node (LN)-negative or LN-positive disease (up to 3 positive nodes).
MammaPrint is a CE-marked assay that is designed to assess the risk of distant recurrence within 5 and 10 years and whether a person would benefit from chemotherapy. The test is for pre- and post-menopausal people with stage 1 or 2 breast cancer, with a tumour size of 5 cm or less, and LN-negative or LN-positive disease (up to 3 positive nodes). The test can be used irrespective of ER and HER2 status.
Prosigna is a CE-marked assay designed to provide information on breast cancer subtype and to predict distant recurrence-free survival at 10 years. The test is for postmenopausal people with early breast cancer that is ER+/HER2- and LN‑negative or LN-positive (up to 3 positive nodes).